دوو شه‌ممه‌ , ئایار 27 2024

Urartian originals

     

A modern depiction of the god Ḫaldi based on Urartian originals

 

 

The Urartian pantheon seems to have comprised a diverse mix of Hurrian, Akkadian, Armenian, and Hittite deities.[75]

Starting with the reign of Ishpuini, the Urartian pantheon was headed by a triad made up of Ḫaldi (the supreme god), Theispas (Teisheba, god of thunder and storms, as well as sometimes war), and Shivini (a solar god). Their king was also the chief-priest or envoy of Ḫaldi. Some temples to Ḫaldi were part of the royal palace complex, while others were independent structures.

With the expansion of Urartian territory, many of the gods worshipped by conquered peoples were incorporated into the Urartian pantheon as a means of confirming the annexation of territories and promoting political stability. Some main gods and goddesses of the Urartian pantheon include:[76]

  • Ḫaldi
  • Theispas
  • Shivini (Siuini)
  • Arubani (Bagvarti)
  • Hutuini
  • Sebitu
  • Kuera
  • Tushpuea
  • Selardi or Melardi
  • Baba
  • Arṭuʾarasau

Ḫaldi was not a native Urartian god but apparently an obscure Akkadian deity (which explains the location of the main temple of worship for Ḫaldi in Musasir, believed to be near modern Rawandiz, Iraq).[77] Ḫaldi was not initially worshiped by the Urartians as their chief god. His cult does not appear to have been introduced until the reign of Ishpuini.[77]

Theispas was a version of the Hurrian god, Teshub.[78]

According to Diakonoff and Vyacheslav Ivanov, Shivini (likely pronounced Shiwini or Siwini) was likely borrowed from the Hittites.[79]

On the Gate of Mehr (Mehri-Dur), overlooking modern Van, an inscription lists a total of 79 deities, and what type of sacrificial offerings should be made to each; goats, sheep, cattle, and other animals served as the sacrificial offerings. Urartians did not practice human sacrifice.[80]

A number of the gods mentioned in the Gate of Mehr may be of Armenian origins,[75] including Ara (or Arwaa),[81] and possibly the goddess Selardi (although there is confusion about this deity’s gender and name, some believe it is to be read Melardi).[81][82][83]

It has been suggested that the Urartian pantheon could correspond to mountain peaks located within the Armenian Highlands.[

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