پێنج شه‌ممه‌ , نیسان 18 2024

Erbil

Erbil, also called Hawler (Kurdishھەولێر ,Hewlêr[3] ArabicأربيلromanizedArbīl,[4] Syriacܐܲܪܒܹܝܠ,[5] or Arbel)[6] and known in ancient history as Arbela, is the capital and most populated city in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.[7] There is no current census of the city and official population statistics are not available, its population is estimated to be around 1,200,000.[2]

Erbil
ھەولێر
       Clockwise, from top: Downtown, Mudhafaria Minaret, Statue of Ibn al-Mustawfi, Citadel of Erbil

Clockwise, from top: DowntownMudhafaria Minaret, Statue of Ibn al-MustawfiCitadel of Erbil
Nickname(s):

The City of Citadel and Minaret
(Kurdish: شاری قەڵا و منارە)[1]

     Erbil is located in Iraqi Kurdistan

Erbil
Erbil
Location of Erbil within the Kurdistan Region

Coordinates: 36.191188°N 44.009189°E
Country  Iraq
Region  Kurdistan Region
Governorate Erbil
Government

 • Mayor Omed Khoshnaw
Area

 • Total 115 km2 (44 sq mi)
 • Land 113 km2 (44 sq mi)
 • Water 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi)
Elevation

390 m (1,280 ft)
Population

 (2021 estimate)
 • Total 1,200,000[2]
Demonym(s) Hawleri
Time zone UTC+3 (AST)
Postal code
44001
Area code(s) 066
Website HawlerGov.org

Human settlement at Erbil may be dated back to the fifth millennium BC.[8] At the heart of the city is the ancient Citadel of Erbil and Mudhafaria Minaret. The earliest historical reference to the region dates to the Third Dynasty of Ur of Sumer, when King Shulgi mentioned the city of Urbilum. The city was later conquered by the Assyrians.[9][10]

Erbil became an integral part of the kingdom of Assyria by the 21st century BC through to the end of the seventh century BC, after it was captured by the Gutians, and it was known in Assyrian annals variously as UrbilimArbela and Arba-ilu. Subsequent to this, it was part of the geopolitical province of Assyria under several empires in turn, including the Median Empire, the Achaemenid Empire (Achaemenid Assyria), Macedonian EmpireSeleucid EmpireArmenian EmpireParthian EmpireRoman Assyria and Sasanian Empire, as well as being the capital of the tributary state of Adiabene between the mid-second century BC and early second century AD.

Following the Muslim conquest of Persia, it no longer remained a unitary region, and during the Middle Ages, the city came to be ruled by the Seljuk and Ottoman empires.[11]

Erbil’s archaeological museum houses a large collection of pre-Islamic artefacts, particularly the art of Mesopotamia, and is a center for archaeological projects in the area.[12] The city was designated as Arab Tourism Capital 2014 by the Arab Council of Tourism.[13][14] In July 2014, the Citadel of Arbil was inscribed as a World Heritage Site.

The city has a Kurdish majority with ethnically diverse population of Turkmens,[15] AssyriansArabs and Armenians. It is equally religiously diverse, with believers of Sunni IslamShia IslamChristianityYarsanism and Yazidism

 

Sources

  • Sourdel, D. (2010), “Irbil”, in Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.), Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Brill Online, OCLC 624382576
  • Grousset, RenéThe Empire of the Steppes, (Translated from the French by Naomi Walford), New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press (1970)

 

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5927124 ‘Kurds who fought on the side of the Assyrians at Urumia’, 1918 (b/w photo) by Unknown photographer (20th century); National Army Museum, London; (add.info.: ‘Kurds who fought on the side of the Assyrians at Urumia’, 1918.

Photograph, World War One, Caucasus, (1914-1918).

The Baku oil installations were deemed vital to the Allied war effort so after the Russian armies in the Caucasus collapsed following the October Revolution (1917), the British attempted to bolster the Allied position there by despatching a military mission called Dunsterforce.

Dunsterforce officers trained local levies in order to oppose the Ottoman army and various Turkish backed-tribesmen. The British found it difficult to work out who among the myriad tribes and faiths in the region were allies or enemies. Leith-Ross noted that the Kurdish group shown here, called the ‘Shekoik… fought with the Christians against the Shiah Moslems, but later they proved traitors and were shot. They look like the treacherous people they actually were’.

From an album of 334 photographs compiled by Major W Leith-Ross, Army Staff and 13th Frontier Force Rifles, 1918-1920);  out of copyright.

Modern history of Kurdistan

1918: Sheikh Mahmoud Barzinji becomes governor of Suleimaniah under British rule. He and other Kurdish …

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