Saturday , December 3 2022


Erbil, also called Hawler (Kurdishھەولێر ,Hewlêr[3] ArabicأربيلromanizedArbīl,[4] Syriacܐܲܪܒܹܝܠ,[5] or Arbel)[6] and known in ancient history as Arbela, is the capital and most populated city in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq.[7] There is no current census of the city and official population statistics are not available, its population is estimated to be around 1,200,000.[2]

       Clockwise, from top: Downtown, Mudhafaria Minaret, Statue of Ibn al-Mustawfi, Citadel of Erbil

Clockwise, from top: DowntownMudhafaria Minaret, Statue of Ibn al-MustawfiCitadel of Erbil

The City of Citadel and Minaret
(Kurdish: شاری قەڵا و منارە)[1]

     Erbil is located in Iraqi Kurdistan

Location of Erbil within the Kurdistan Region

Coordinates: 36.191188°N 44.009189°E
Country  Iraq
Region  Kurdistan Region
Governorate Erbil

 • Mayor Omed Khoshnaw

 • Total 115 km2 (44 sq mi)
 • Land 113 km2 (44 sq mi)
 • Water 2 km2 (0.8 sq mi)

390 m (1,280 ft)

 (2021 estimate)
 • Total 1,200,000[2]
Demonym(s) Hawleri
Time zone UTC+3 (AST)
Postal code
Area code(s) 066

Human settlement at Erbil may be dated back to the fifth millennium BC.[8] At the heart of the city is the ancient Citadel of Erbil and Mudhafaria Minaret. The earliest historical reference to the region dates to the Third Dynasty of Ur of Sumer, when King Shulgi mentioned the city of Urbilum. The city was later conquered by the Assyrians.[9][10]

Erbil became an integral part of the kingdom of Assyria by the 21st century BC through to the end of the seventh century BC, after it was captured by the Gutians, and it was known in Assyrian annals variously as UrbilimArbela and Arba-ilu. Subsequent to this, it was part of the geopolitical province of Assyria under several empires in turn, including the Median Empire, the Achaemenid Empire (Achaemenid Assyria), Macedonian EmpireSeleucid EmpireArmenian EmpireParthian EmpireRoman Assyria and Sasanian Empire, as well as being the capital of the tributary state of Adiabene between the mid-second century BC and early second century AD.

Following the Muslim conquest of Persia, it no longer remained a unitary region, and during the Middle Ages, the city came to be ruled by the Seljuk and Ottoman empires.[11]

Erbil’s archaeological museum houses a large collection of pre-Islamic artefacts, particularly the art of Mesopotamia, and is a center for archaeological projects in the area.[12] The city was designated as Arab Tourism Capital 2014 by the Arab Council of Tourism.[13][14] In July 2014, the Citadel of Arbil was inscribed as a World Heritage Site.

The city has a Kurdish majority with ethnically diverse population of Turkmens,[15] AssyriansArabs and Armenians. It is equally religiously diverse, with believers of Sunni IslamShia IslamChristianityYarsanism and Yazidism



  • Sourdel, D. (2010), “Irbil”, in Bearman, P.; Bianquis, Th.; Bosworth, C.E.; van Donzel, E.; Heinrichs, W.P. (eds.), Encyclopaedia of Islam, Second Edition, Brill Online, OCLC 624382576
  • Grousset, RenéThe Empire of the Steppes, (Translated from the French by Naomi Walford), New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press (1970)



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